CNC Cutting Tool Selection and Cutting Amount Determination

The selection of the tool and the determination of the cutting quantity are the important contents in the numerical control processing technology. It not only affects the processing efficiency of the CNC machine tool, but also directly affects the processing quality. The development of CAD / CAM technology makes it possible to use CAD design data directly in CNC machining. Especially, the connection between computer and CNC machine tool makes the whole process of design, process planning and programming all done on the computer and no special craft documents needed any more.

Now, many CAD / CAM software packages provide automatic programming functions, which are usually in the programming interface and prompts the process planning issues, such as tool selection, processing path planning, cutting the amount of settings. The programmers only have to set the parameters and NC programs are automatically generated  and transferred to the CNC machine to complete processing. Therefore, the choice of tool selection and cutting in numerical control machining is done in the form of human-computer interaction, which is in sharp contrast to the common machine tool processing. It also requires the programmer to master the basic principles of CNC cutting tool selection and cutting programming to fully consider the characteristics of CNC machining. In this post, the problem of tool selection and cutting quantity determination which must be faced in NC programming is discussed. Some principles and suggestions are given, and the problems that should be paid attention are discussed as well.

Types and characteristics of CNC Cutting Tools

CNC machining tools must meet characteristics of CNC machine:high speed, high efficiency and high degree of automation. Generally there are general-purpose tool, universal connection handle and a small amount of special handle. The tool holder is connected to the tool and mounted on the machine power head, so it has been standardized and serialized.

There are several ways to classify CNC tools. According to the structure, CNC cutting tools can be divided into:

  • integral type;
  • mosaic, by the use of welding or machine folder connection, it can be divided into non-transposition and indexable two;
  • special type, such as compound cutter, Vibration tools and so on.

According to the material used to make the tool, tools for cutting can be divided into:

  • high-speed steel cutting tools;
  • carbide cutting tools;
  • diamond tools;
  • other materials, such as tools, such as cubic boron nitride tool, ceramic cutting tools.

From the cutting process, CNC machine cutting tools can be divided into:

  • turning tools, sub-circle, hole, thread, cutting tools and other;
  • drilling tools, including drill, reamer, taps, etc .;
  • boring tools;
  • Milling tools

In order to meet the requirements of CNC machine tools to be durable, stable, easy to adjust, easy to be changed, in recent years, machine-type indexable tool are widely used with about  30% to 40% of the entire CNC cutting tools and 80% to 90% of the total metal removal.

Characteristics of CNC Cutting Tools

When compared with general-purpose machine tool, CNC cutting tools have the main characteristics as follows:

  1. good rigidity (especially roughing tool), high precision, anti-vibration and thermal deformation of small;
  2. interchangeability is good, easy for quick tool change;
  3. high life, cutting performance is stable and reliable;
  4. The size of the tool is easy to adjust to reduce the tool change time;
  5. The tool should be able to reliably break the chip or chip, in order to facilitate the removal of chips;
  6. series, standardization, in order to facilitate programming and tool management.

The choice of CNC machining tool

When selecting CNC cutting tools, KAIAO, one of the top CNC machining companies in China, is fully experienced and always makes sure the size of the tool matches the surface size of the workpiece. In the production, while tooling the peripheral parts of the contours in KAIAO’s CNC machining factory, KAIAO often uses end mills; While milling plane, we select carbide cutter cutter and high-speed steel end mills for processing boss or groove. For rough surface or rough holes, corn cutters with carbide cutter blade are selected. Besides, the CNC milling cutters like ball cutter, ring cutter, tapered cutter and disc cutter are used for some three-dimensional profiles and variable bevel contour contours.

For more details, please visit: How to Select CNC Milling Tools in CNC Machining.

How to determine the amount of cutting

The principle for a reasonable choice of cutting amount is that, in rough processing, we generally need to improve productivity-based, but should also consider the economy and processing costs; in semi-finishing and finishing, we should ensure the quality of processing and take the cutting efficiency, economy and processing costs into account. The specific values should be based on the machine manual, cutting the amount of manual, combined with experience.



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